Ureter cancer or renal pelvis cancer represents a cancer type affecting the kidney’s pelvis (tube passing the urine from kidney to the bladder). These cancers account for around five percent of all the cancer types related to upper urinary tract and kidney. The occurrence of ureter cancer is more common in men (aged more than 65 years) than women. Ureter or renal pelvis cancer tumors are usually transitional cell cancers and around ten percent of the tumors are squamous cell cancers. The exact causes of ureter cancer is not known, however chronic irritation in the kidney due to harmful substances released in the urine accounts for one of the crucial causative agents. There are several factors leading to irritation such as analgesic nephropathy, consistent smoking and continuous exposure to certain chemical and dyes used in manufacture of textiles, plastics, leather goods and rubber.
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In addition it has also been identified that the patients with bladder cancer are also at high risk of developing ureter cancer. The patients with ureter cancer will suffer from unintentional weight loss, fatigue, back pain, and pass bloody and dark colored urine. Furthermore, the patients experience flank pain, frequent urination and discomfort while urinating. Healthcare professionals perform physical examination followed by examination of abdomen. In addition, Urinalysis, complete blood count and urine cytology represent other tests recommended to the patients suspected with aforementioned symptoms.
In the ureter cancer patients, urinalysis may confirm the presence of blood in the urine, microscopic examination of cells performed during a cystoscopy may reveal the presence of cancer cells and complete blood count may identify the presence of anemia in the test sample. Abdominal CT scan, MRI of abdomen, renal scan, kidney ultrasound, chest x-ray, ureteroscopy and intravenous pyelogram (IVP) constitute other imaging studies recommended post preliminary clinical laboratory tests. These imaging platforms assist in determination of tumor or facilitate the identification of cancer spread from kidneys.
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Timely diagnosis of kidney cancers help design efficient treatment approaches aimed at eliminating the disease. As per few research studies it has been identified that around 75% to 100% the cancer patients survive if it is diagnosed in the early stages. Treatment approaches include the use of therapeutics against the symptoms and surgery to eliminate the cancer. Nephrectomy includes the complete or partial removal of kidney. This includes removal of lymph nodes or a part of the bladder and surrounding tissues. In case of presence of tumor in the ureter, removal of tumor is possible while preserving the kidney. Chemotherapy is administered if the cancer has spread outside of the kidney or ureter as these are similar to a form of bladder cancer.
The ureter cancer treatment market can be analyzed by the various treatment approaches adopted such as therapeutics and chemotherapy and surgeries. Clinical trial review of the therapeutics to treat ureter cancer provides a lucrative growth prospects for this market. Factors such as regulatory policies, cancer prevalence and research and development activities govern the market. The major favoring the growth of the ureter cancer treatment market are increasing incidence of ureter cancer worldwide and rigorous research activities towards developing ureter cancer therapeutics.
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According to the estimates provided by Urology Care Foundation, In the United States, around 63,000 new kidney cancer cases will be diagnosed and around 14,000 deaths will be witnessed due to ureter cancer in the year 2014. On the contrary, less awareness of these cancer types and high cost of the surgical procedures are some of the factors that might hamper the market growth. Takeda Pharmaceuticals Company Limited, Oncogenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eli Lilly & Company, AstraZeneca PLC and Merck & Co, Inc. are some of the companies engaged in the clinical trials of ureter cancer therapeutics.